Dynamics



[Eng.]


The loudness or softness of a composition. The term piano (p) is used to indicate softness and forte (f) to indicate loudness. Each of these is augmented if the letter symbolizing it is doubled or tripled (e.g. "pp" - "pianissimo", "very soft"; "ppp" - "pianississimo", "very, very soft"). Each is also lessened if proceeded by mezzo (m) (e.g. "mf" - "mezzo forte", "somewhat loud"). Also included in dynamics are the crescendo ("slowly growing louder"), decrescendo ("slowly growing softer"), and the sforzando ("sudden loudness").


More about dynamic markings


SUGGESTED LISTENING EXAMPLES:

Dynamics, piano:
Ravel: Boléro (clarinet solo)
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 45
Chopin: Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 16
Shostakovich: Ballet suite No. 1
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 2, Track 20

Dynamics, forte:
Ravel: Boléro (woodwinds)

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 48

Dynamics, pianissimo:
Ravel: Boléro: (opening, flute)

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 44

Dynamics, fortissimo:
Ravel: Boléro (conclusion)

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 49
Musorgsky: Pictures at an exhibition, "Great Gate of Kiev" (conclusion)
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 2, Track 22
Strauss: Don Juan, Op. 20
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 3

Dynamics, mezzo-piano:
Ravel: Boléro (oboe d'amore)

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 46
Fauré: Pelléas et Mélisande, "Sicilienne"
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 63

Dynamics, mezzo-forte:
Ravel: Boléro (French horn)

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 47

Dynamics, crescendo:
Holst: The Planets, Op. 32, "Jupiter, The Bringer of Jollity"

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 50
Beethoven: Wellington's Victory, Op. 91, "Drums and Trumpets on the English Side"
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 2, Track 19
Bizet: L'arlésienne Suite No. 2. "Farandole" (concluding section)
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 24
Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody, No. 2 (ending)
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 42

Dynamics, decrescendo:
Smetana: The Moldau (ending)

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 43

Dynamics, sforzando:
Debussy: Children's Corner Suite, "Golliwog's Cakewalk"

W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 51
Borodin: Prince Igor, "Polovetsian Dances", section D
W. W. Norton - 4-CD Musical Example Bank -- Disc 1, Track 14

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