Neume Notation through History

Neume Names

9th to 10th Centuries

11th to 13th Centuries

Modern Notation

Virga

Punctum

Podatus (Pes)

Clivis

Scandicus

Climacus

Torculus

Porrectus

Scandicus flexus

Porrectus flexus

Torculus Respinus

Pes subpunctis