Music 2115

Study Guide for Chapter 12

"Reformation and Counter-Reformation"



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The Protestant Reformation

Lutheran music

Primarily in Germanic and Scandinavian lands

Martin Luther (1483-1546)

Priest & Professor of Scripture

His "95 theses" were an invitation to debate

His beliefs based on scripture, not church traditions

Result of invention of printing from moveable type: individuals could interpret scripture for themselves

Luther was trained in music

Advocated Latin services for University churches, the language of the people for those who knew no Latin

His opinions on and contributions to music?

A gift of God, second only to theology

Believed in music for worship, both vocal & instrumental

Retained the choir of trained professional singers, but added music for the congregation--the Chorale

The Chorale

The congregational hymn of the Lutheran Church

Newly composed, translated from traditional chants, new words fitted to traditional music

Intended to convey a message, not create a mood

Luther wrote many of the texts, some of the tunes

1st Luthern hymnbook, 1524

Chorales were set polyphonically and used as cantus firmus for motets

Johann Walter (1496-1570)

Friend of Luther, composer of much early Lutheran music

Georg Rhau (1488-1548)

Musician, publisher of much early Lutheran music

Protestant Switzerland

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
German Swiss at Zurich

Priest, trained musician

But excluded music from the services and churches under his influence and had the organs dismantled

Jean Calvin (1509-1564)

French; studied theology and law

Fled to Switzerland when France made Lutheranism illegal

French Swiss at Geneva

Believed Psalms were appropriate for singing in services

Supervised preparation of Psalms in French language and unison or simple settings

Protestant-Catholic Swings in England

The History
1534 formal separation from Rome (but Henry was against Luther)

1535 "Act of Supremacy" made Henry head of the English church

1536 English translation of the Bible came into use

1547 Death of Henry VIII

1547-1553 Edward VI--England remained Protestant

1549 Book of Common Prayer became official

1553-1558 Mary I--England again became catholic

1558-1603 Elizabeth I--England again became Protestant

Anglican music

The "Service" includes the unvarying parts of Morning & Evening Prayers & Communion

The "Great Service" uses contrapuntal polyphony

The "Short Service" uses homophonic (homorhythmic) music

The "Anthem" is the Anglican equivalent of the motet

The "Full Anthem" is contrapuntal and choral throughout

The "Verse Anthem" alternates solo verses with choral verses

English Renaissance composers: early part of the 16th century

John Taverner (c. 1490-1545)

Thomas Tallis (c. 1505-1585)

Christopher Tye (c. 1515-c. 1572)

English Renaissance composers: latter part of the 16th century

William Byrd (c. 1543-1623)
A favorite of Queen Elizabeth I even though he remained Catholic

Held a Royal Monopoly on the printing of music, first with his teacher, Tallis, and later with his student Thomas Morley

Composed Latin music for Catholic patrons and English music for the Anglican church

The Catholic Counter-Reformation

The Council of Trent

Called to deal with long-needed reforms within the church

Met in 3 sessions of 1-2 years each, between 1545-1563

Musical reform was a very small part of the Council's work

Their concerns included the use of secular tunes, imitative polyphony that obscured texts, many local differences and the use of many sequences that had been added, widespread use of "noisy" musical instruments, and unprofessional musicianship of singers.

Their rulings were to

Eliminate textual tropes

Reduce the thousands of Sequences in use to only 4 (a 5th re-admitted in the 18th century)

Avoid impure language, secularity, and "unedifying language"

Establish a new edition of chant--the "Medici Edition"--at first edited by Palestrina, completed in 1614, and used until the Vatican Edition was published in 1908

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525-1594)

He was already composing in a style compatible with the Council's rulings

Because his music was cited by music theorists as examples of proper composition, his music never really fell completely out of use

Most of his music was sacred; he composed very beautiful madrigals but later said he regretted doing so

Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)

Spanish, worked in Rome, later in Spain

Wrote only sacred music

Achieved very emotional results from very simple musical means

Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594)

Born in Mons, traveled to Sicily, Naples, Rome, Antwerp, Munich, visited French court

Mastered the language and musical style in each place he worked

Wrote much music, both sacred and secular, including drinking songs and love songs in French, Italian, German and gutter Neapolitan

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