Music 2115

Study Guide for Chapter 11

"The Rise of Regional Styles"

Secular Song in the Renaissance


Contents:

Pre-Madrigal in Italy
Italian Madrigal
Lighter Italian Songs
Music at Ferrara
Songs Outside Italy


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The Italian Madrigal and other song forms

Pre-Madrigal Song in Italy (up to about 1525)

Lauda
Non-liturgical sacred

Sung all over, but especially popular in Florence

Canti carnascialeschi

Carnival songs, pre-Lenten and Spring

Especially popular in Florence

Mostly strophic with refrain like 14th century "madrigal"

Frottola (c. 1500-1525)

3 & 4-part polyphonic

Homophonic, with a real bass part

Based on practice of reciting poetry to musical accompaniment

Especially popular at Ferrara, Mantua, Urbino

Strophic or strophic with refrain

Major Composers (both from Verona)

Marco Cara (1470-1525)

Barolomeo Tromboncino (c1470-c1535)

Villanella

Light & witty

Flourished 1530-1600, especially in Naples

The Madrigal in Italy

Based on the revival of Petrarch's poetry about 1500
Usually a single stroph of a poem was used

Set phrase by phrase

Early period madrigals (1525-1545)

Much like frottola, but serious poetry & all parts sung

Often in 4 parts

Major Composers

Philippe Verdelot (c. 1475-c. 1535)

Costanzo Festa (c. 1480-1545)

Jacob Arcadelt (c. 1505-1568)

Classical period madrigals (1545-1580)

Took on the musical style of Netherlandish sacred music

Used Petrarch poetry or 16th century poetry in Petrarch's style

In 4 , 5, or 6 parts

Major Composers

Adrian Willaert (c. 1490-1562), a Netherlander in Venice

Cipriano de Rore (1516-1565; succeeded Willaert in 1563), a Netherlander in Italy

Giaches de Wert (1535-1596), in Mantua for the Gonzaga family, & in Ferrara

Philippe de Monte (1521-1603), Flemish, working in Italy

Late period madrigals (1580-1620--native Italians assumed leadership)

Used contemporary Italian poetry, still serious

Explored chromaticism and dissonance

In 4-6 parts, predominantly in 5 parts

Major Composers

Luca Marenzio (c. 1553-1599), Italian

Don Carlo Gesualdo (c. 1561-1613), Italian, Prince of Venosa, some time at Ferrara

Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Italian, at Mantua, later Venice

Late 16th century lighter music in Italy

Canzonetta
Means "Little song"

Srophic

Pastoral, amorous, erotic, or satirical

Imitated by English & German composers

Major Composer: Orazio Vecchi

Balletto

Means "dance song"

The one with the "fa-las"

Homophonic, rhythmic, strophic

Imitated by English & German composers

Major Composer: Giovanni Gastoldi (c. 1552-c. 1622)

Late 16th century at Ferrara

Concerto grande (60 singers & instrumentalists)

Concerto delle donne I (aristocratic ladies of skill)

Concerto delle donne II (professional female singers)

Musica reservata or musica secreta

Intermedii between acts of a play

Song Forms Outside of Italy

16th century Popular Music in France

Chanson
Parisian

Much like the Frottola

Light, rhythmic, duple, homophonic with some imitation

Major Composers:

Claudin de Sermisy (c. 1490-1562)

Clément Janequin (c. 1485-1558)

Air de cour (solo song with lute accompaniment)

Musique mesurée

Matching of the music to the scansion of the text

Short-lived style

Major composer: Claude Le Jeune (c. 1530-1600)

16th century Popular Music in England

Musica transalpina (1588) greatly influenced the English madrigal, Canzonett, & Ballett

Major Composers:

Thomas Morley (c. 1557-1602)

Thomas Weelkes (1576-1623)

Consort Song (became the Verse Anthem)

Major composer: William Byrd (c. 1543-1623)

Lute Song or Ayre (1590s, as popularity of the madrigal declined)

Major composer: John Dowland (1563-1626)

16th century Popular Music in Germany

Meisterlieder, mostly monophonic, continued popular

Polyphonic Lieder (Tenorlieder)

Major Composers:
Ludwig Senfl (c. 1486-1543)

Hans Leo Hassler (1562-1612)

16th century Popular Music in Spain

Villancico
Major composer: Juan del Encina (1468-c. 1530)

 


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