Music 2115

Study Guide for Chapter 5

"Early Middle Ages"

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The Medieval Modes
Guido d'Arezzo
Medieval Instruments
Early Polyphony

The Medieval Modes--Don't memorize all this, but make sure you understand the concepts and the way things developed

Guido d'Arezzo (c. 990-1050)--Use the textbook to learn this, then use the outline below to make sure you know it

Medieval Musical Instruments--Use the textbook and the on-line glossary of musical terms to make sure you understand what these instruments were and what they looked like

Organs (not a church instrument until the 9th century
Small "positive" organs used from the 10th century

Smaller "portatif" organs used from the 12th century

Stringed instruments

Bowed instruments (from the 10th century)
Hurdy-gurdy ("organistrum," Vièle à roue ) using a rotating wheel

Vielle (fiedel) popular for accompanying singers

Rebec (from Arabic sources)

Plucked instruments (from Antiquity)

Roman Lyre

Harp (introduced from Ireland to Europe before the 9th century)

Psaltery (a triangular or trapezoidal sound box with wire or gut strings; think of an autoharp without the auto)

Lute (from Islamic Spain or the Crusades, 12th or 13th centuries)

Wind instruments

Transverse flute ("cross-flute"; from Byzantium in the late Middle Ages)

Vertical flute ("recorder," "flageolet"; from Asia, from the 11th century)

Shawm ("pommer," "bombard"; double-reed instrument; from the Near East in the 12th century)

Bagpipe ("musa"; known in 1st-century Rome; popular from the 9th century)

Brass instruments

Horns (of animal horn, wood, or metal; from Antiquity)

Trumpets (metal, short & straight (from Rome), long & straight (brought back from Crusades), long and folded in 3 (late Medieval)


Very ancient; specific types probably from Asia; also jingles, cymbals, etc.

Early polyphony--This is complicated; know the emphasized terms and make sure you understand each separate entry, using the textbook to help

Early Organum

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