Table of Dynamic Markings


Piano p

Soft volume

Pianissimo pp  
Pianississimo ppp Very soft volume
Pianissississimo pppp  
Pianississississimo ppppp Extremely soft volume
Pianissississississimo pppppp As soft as possible
Mezzo forte mf Medium loud volume
Mezzo piano mp Medium soft volume
Fortissississimo ffff

As loud as possible

Fortississimo fff Extremely loud volume
Fortissimo ff Very loud volume
Forte f Loud volume
Forzando or Forzato fz or ffz Begin the note loudly with a very strong accent
Sforzando sf or sff or sfff Loud and accented
Sforzato sfz or sffz or sfffz Loud and accented
Combined Markings
Pianoforte pf Soft then immediately loud
Fortepiano fp Loud and accented then immediately soft
Fortissimo piano ffp Begin the note very loudly, instantly diminishing to a much softer volume.
Mezzoforte piano mfp Begin the note moderately loudly, instantly diminishing to a much softer volume.
Sforzando piano sfp Begin the note loudly, with a marked and sudden emphasis, instantly diminishing to a much softer volume.
Dynamic Transitions

Crescendo orCrescendo Marking

cresc. Gradually increase volume
Decrescendo or Decrescendo Marking decr. or decresc. Gradually decrease volume

Diminuendo or Decrescendo Marking

dim. Gradually decrease volume